Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées)
(Milkfish) > Chanidae
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marin; eau douce; saumâtre benthopélagique; amphidrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W
Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.
Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge
Maturity: Lm 91.8, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 9814); poids max. publié: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); âge max. reporté: 15 années (Ref. 9814)
Épines dorsales (Total): 2; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 13-17; Épines anales 2; Rayons mous anaux: 8 - 10; Vertèbres: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).
Found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894). A marine species which enters estuaries and rivers (Ref. 52331). Adults occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles, which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). Can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).
Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.
Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fish. 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)
Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Menace pour l'homme
Utilisations par l'homme
Pêcheries: hautement commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; appât: usually
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 69278
): Faible, temps minimum de doublement de population : 4,5 à 14 années (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .