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Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Sand steenbras
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Lithognathus mormyrus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lithognathus mormyrus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Lithognathus: Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin; saumâtre démersal; profondeur 0 - 150 m (Ref. 3688), usually 10 - 20 m (Ref. 37413).   Subtropical; 48°N - 35°S, 25°W - 36°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay, Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean; southward to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa; around the Canary and Cape Verde Islands (Ref. 3688); and Madeira Is (Ref. 74541). Western Indian Ocean: southern Mozambique (Ref. 3688). Not found in tropical east Africa (Ref. 3198), Red Sea (Ref. 84159) and Black Sea (Ref. 4781, 112870).

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 18.8, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 3397); common length : 30.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 3688); âge max. reporté: 12 années (Ref. 13716)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 11; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 12-13; Épines anales 3; Rayons mous anaux: 10 - 11

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Found on the shelf, over sandy and muddy bottoms as well as seagrass-beds and estuaries. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Feeds on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans. Protandric hermaphrodite (Ref. 3688). Flesh excellent (Ref. 3198); sold fresh and dried.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). In the northern Adriatic, overall male to female ratio was 1:1.62. Sex inversion occurred mainly between 24.1 and 35.2 cm TL and 3.5 years of age (Ref. 55367). Conflicting descriptions of the reproductive style of this species have been reported, including possible gonochorism (Ref. 103751). Also Ref. 28504.

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 16 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur; pêche sportive: oui
FAO(pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Pays
Zones FAO
Écosystèmes
Occurrences
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Écologie
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Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Rassemblement de ponte
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.1 - 27.5, mean 24.4 (based on 224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01121 - 0.01414), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.24; tm=2).
Prior r = 0.70, 95% CL = 0.46 - 1.05, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Medium.