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Carassius gibelio  (Bloch, 1782)

Prussian carp
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Carassius gibelio
Picture by Jawad, L.A.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; eau douce; saumâtre benthopélagique; pH range: 7.1 - 7.5; dH range: 12 - ?; potamodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 0 - ? m.   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 62°N - 35°N, 10°W - 155°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: usually considered as native from central Europe to Siberia or introduced to European waters from eastern Asia. Clear and definite data on original distribution in Europe are not available due to introduction, confusion with Carassius auratus and complex modes of reproduction. At present, widely distributed and commonly stocked together with Cyprinus carpio which is transported throughout Europe. Absent in northern Baltic basin, Iceland, Ireland, Scotland and Mediterranean islands.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 10.3, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 46.6 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 88166); common length : 20.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 556); poids max. publié: 3.0 kg (Ref. 556); âge max. reporté: 10 années (Ref. 59043)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having the following characters: body silvery-brown in color; last simple anal and dorsal rays strongly serrated; 37-52 gill rakers; lateral line with 29-33 scales; freed edge of dorsal concave or straight; anal fin with 5½ branched rays; and peritoneum black (Ref. 59043).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits a wide variety of still water bodies and lowland rivers, usually associated with submerged vegetation or regular flooding. Can strongly tolerate low oxygen concentrations and pollution (Ref. 59043). Lake dwelling individuals move into river mouths to avoid low oxygen water in winter (Ref. 39176). Feeding larvae and juveniles occur in high-complexity habitats as reed belts. Feeds on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Spawns in shallow, warm shores on submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Able to reproduce from unfertilized eggs (gynogenesis) (Ref. 41851). Life span reaches up to about 10 years (Ref. 59043). Eastern European or wild form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Females spawn with several other species, for example Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius, but the eggs just develop without being actually fertilized resulting in a female only population (Ref. 2059). In Europe, populations considered as triploid and only females. But in some populations, it should be possible to find up to 25% of males which should be diploid (Ref. 40476). "There are also all-female populations in which all individuals are triploids. Triploids are sperm parasites of other cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus rutilus and Abramis brama. Older individuals spawn earlier in season than younger ones. Males move to spawning sites before females. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Sticky eggs are attached to water plants or submerged objects" (Ref. 59043).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

  Non évalué 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Potential pest (Ref. 83969)




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.01196 - 0.01593), b=3.04 (3.00 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.13; tm=1-4).
Prior r = 0.48, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 1.06, log(r) = -0.73, SD log(r) = 0.4, Based on: 19 K, 9 tgen, 2 tmax, 9 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.