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Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eurasian minnow
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Native range
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Phoxinus phoxinus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Phoxinus phoxinus
Picture by Sediva, A.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Phoxinus: Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; eau douce; saumâtre démersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; potamodrome (Ref. 51243).   Temperate; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 5.1, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 556); âge max. reporté: 11 années (Ref. 59043)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 3; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 6-8; Épines anales 3; Rayons mous anaux: 6 - 8; Vertèbres: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Potential pest (Ref. 13686)





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur; Aquarium: Commercial; appât: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00695 - 0.00908), b=3.12 (3.08 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.