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Merluccius merluccius  (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
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Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes) > Merlucciinae
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin démersal; profondeur 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 42.8, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 1371); poids max. publié: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); âge max. reporté: 20 années (Ref. 35388)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 43-51; Rayons mous anaux: 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: hautement commercial
FAO(pêcheries: production, Résumé espèce; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00424 - 0.00540), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.22 - 0.95, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.37, Based on: 3 M, 76 K, 24 tgen, 7 tmax, 38 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   High.