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Tetronarce nobiliana  (Bonaparte, 1835)

Electric ray
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Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Élasmobranches (requins et raies) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
More on author: Bonaparte.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin benthopélagique; océanodrome; profondeur 2 - 800 m (Ref. 35509), usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 35388).   Subtropical; 60°N - 35°S, 82°W - 36°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Scotland (rare in North Sea) to Morocco, whole of Mediterranean, but not Black Sea; Cap Blanc in Mauritania to Gulf of Guinea, São Tomé Island; Walvis Bay, Namibia to Mossel Bay, South Africa (Ref. 5578). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south to Brazil (Ref. 26340).

Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 2803); common length : 40.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 3261); poids max. publié: 90.0 kg (Ref. 7251)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Large ray with a huge, paddle-shaped caudal fin and with no papillae around spiracles. Shiny black or dark grey above, underside white (Ref. 5578). Broad subcircular disc, short snout anterior to the eyes. Smooth skin, short thick tail (Ref. 6902). Dark chocolate to purplish brown above, without spots, white below, but with edges of disc and pelvic fins of same hue as upper surface, tail with irregular dark margins (Ref. 6902).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Juveniles benthic over soft bottoms or near coral reefs (Ref. 12951) from 10-150 m; adults are semi-pelagic to pelagic, swimming in the water column and have been reported to migrate over long distances (Ref. 2803). Feeds mainly on pelagic and benthic bony fishes and small sharks (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Packs a powerful electric shock of up to 220 volts (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). With up to 60 in a litter. Gestation period one year (Ref. 12951). Size at birth about 23 cm (Ref. 12951).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborateurs

Stehmann, M. and D.L. Bürkel, 1984. Torpedinidae. p. 159-162. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2803)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

Other (Ref. 10011)




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: sans intérêt
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Plus d'informations

Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
Souches
Génétique
Fréquences alléliques
Héritabilité
Pathologies
Traitement
Mass conversion
Collaborateurs
Images
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Vitesse
Type de nage
Surface branchiale
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.3 - 27.5, mean 13.9 (based on 3020 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01088 - 0.03044), b=2.96 (2.81 - 3.11), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Faible, temps minimum de doublement de population : 4,5 à 14 années (Fec=60;).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .