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Dipturus batis  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue skate
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Image of Dipturus batis (Blue skate)
Dipturus batis
Male picture by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Élasmobranches (requins et raies) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).

Issue
Junior synonym Raia intermedia Parnell, 1837 (= Dipturus intermedius) is considered valid in CofF ver. January 2018 following Last et al., 2016 (Ref. 114953). Its synonymy under the current species will be removed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin démersal; profondeur 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 4426), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 4426).   Subtropical; 69°N - 12°N, 30°W - 42°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway, Iceland, the Faroes to Senegal, including western Mediterranean and western part of the Baltic. Extirpated by trawling from much of its former range (Ref. 27438).

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 160.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 285 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 35388); common length : 100.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 3261); poids max. publié: 97.1 kg (Ref. 40637)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 0. Snout very long and pointed; length before eyes 2,5-4,0 times distance between them; disc broadly rhombic with acute outer corners; upper surface and underside smooth in young, partly prickly in larger specimens; no thorns on disc, a row of 12-18 thorns along tail; 40-56 tooth rows; upper surface olive-grey or brown with a variable pattern of light spots, underside ashy-grey to blue-grey (Ref. 3167).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Benthic species in shelf and slope waters with a wide tolerance for depth and temperature (Ref. 4426). Found in coastal waters mainly within the 200 m range (Ref. 3167). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals, large individuals prefer fish (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Mate in spring and the egg capsules are laid during the summer. Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.6-24.5 cm long and 5.0-14.5 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40 eggs per individual are laid annually (Ref. 41250). Flesh is marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg-cases laid in spring and summer, very large (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : McEachran, John | Collaborateurs

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur; pêche sportive: oui
FAO(pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Plus d'informations

Pays
Zones FAO
Écosystèmes
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Écologie
Régime alimentaire
Éléments du régime alimentaire
Consommation alimentaire
Ration
Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
Références
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 15, mean 9.8 (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00189 - 0.00667), b=3.17 (3.01 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Très faible, temps minimum de doublement de population supérieur à 14 ans (K=0.06; tm=11; tmax=51).
Prior r = 0.14, 2 SD range = 0.03 - 0.58, log(r) = -1.97, SD log(r) = 0.72, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 1 tgen, 1 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Medium.