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Oreochromis niloticus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nile tilapia
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oreochromis niloticus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  niloticus: From "Filhoa" = the Amharic word for "hot spring" (Ref. 2).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; eau douce; saumâtre benthopélagique; potamodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 0 - 20 m (Ref. 32849), usually ? - 20 m (Ref. 34290).   Tropical; 14°C - 33°C (Ref. 3); 32°N - 5°S, 17°W - 38°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: naturally occurring in coastal rivers of Israel (Ref. 5166), Nile basin (including lake Albert, Edward and Tana), Jebel Marra, Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika, Awash River, various Ethiopian lakes, Omo River system, Lake Turkana, Suguta River and Lake Baringo (Ref. 2). In West Africa natural distribution covers the basins of the Senegal, Gambia, Volta, Niger, Benue and Chad, with introduced specimens reported from various coastal basins (Ref. 53405). Widely introduced for aquaculture, with many existing strains. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction. The following subspecies were previously recognized: Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, Oreochromis niloticus cancellatus, Oreochromis niloticus eduardianus, Oreochromis niloticus filoa, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus sugutae, Oreohromis niloticus tana and Oreohromis niloticus vulcani.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 18.6, range 6 - 28 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 4967); poids max. publié: 4.3 kg (Ref. 40637); âge max. reporté: 9 années (Ref. 164)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 15 - 18; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 11-13; Épines anales 3; Rayons mous anaux: 9 - 11; Vertèbres: 30 - 32. Diagnosis: jaws of mature male not greatly enlarged (length of lower jaw 29-37 % of head length); genital papilla of breeding male not tassellated (Ref. 2). Most distinguishing characteristic is the presence of regular vertical stripes throughout depth of caudal fin (Ref. 4967, 53405).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Occur in a wide variety of freshwater habitats like rivers, lakes, sewage canals and irrigation channels (Ref. 28714). Does not do well in pure salt water, but is able to survive in brackish water (Ref. 52307). Mainly diurnal. Feeds mainly on phytoplankton or benthic algae. Additionally, insect larvae are of some importance, as are aufwuchs and detritus; juveniles tend to be more omnivorous than adults (Ref. 52307). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Ovophilic (Ref. 52307), maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 2, 52307). Extended temperature range 8-42 °C, natural temperature range 13.5 - 33 °C (Ref. 3). Maximum depth from Ref. 34290. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Sexual maturity is reached at 3-6 months depending on temperature, reaching about 30 g. Reproduction occurs only when temperatures are over 20°C. Several yearly spawnings every 30 days. Females incubate eggs inside their mouths (approximately for a week) where larvae hatch and remain until the vitellus is reabsorved. Egg size 1.5 mm, larval length at hatching 4 mm. Spawns in firm sand in water from 0.6 to 2 m deep of lakes (Ref. 2) and inshore waters (Ref. 55624). Males set up and defend territory which are visited by the females. Courtship lasts several hours. A single male probably fertilises the eggs of more than one female (Ref. 55624). Eggs are shed in batches in shallow nest and fertilized by male. Each batch of eggs is picked up into oral cavity by female. Females solely involved in broodcare. Female carries up to 200 eggs in her mouth where the larvae hatch and remain until after the yolk-sac is absorbed.

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborateurs

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

  Non évalué 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Potential pest




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: hautement commercial; Aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production, Résumé espèce; pêcheries: production, Résumé espèce; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.01661 - 0.02396), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.14-0.41; tm=1-2; tmax=9; Fec < 1,000).
Prior r = 0.51, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 1.24, log(r) = -0.67, SD log(r) = 0.44, Based on: 21 K, 9 tgen, 1 tmax, 4 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.