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Oreochromis shiranus Boulenger, 1897

Shire tilapia
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Image of Oreochromis shiranus (Shire tilapia)
Oreochromis shiranus
Male picture by Loiselle, P.V.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; eau douce; saumâtre benthopélagique.   Tropical; 23°C - 42°C (Ref. 670); 13°S - 17°S

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: Two subspecies are recognized: Oreochromis shiranus shiranus from Shiré River above the Murchison rapids and Lake Malawi, together with their tributaries in Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique (Ref. 5166, 118630); Oreochromis shiranus chilwae from Lake Chilwa and its basin in Malawi and Mozambique (Ref. 5166, 118638).

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 13.5, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 21)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 15 - 18; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 10-13; Épines anales 3-5; Rayons mous anaux: 9 - 11; Vertèbres: 29 - 30. Diagnosis: A large, deep-bodied species with 4, rarely 3 or 5, anal fin spines (Ref. 118638). Females and immatures from the Lake Malawi catchment have a dark olive-coloured body, yellow-gold below; other populations, such as those from Lakes Chilwa and Chiuta and the Ruvuma system show a more silvery colour; unusually for Oreochromis, the horizontal stripes are often more prominent than the vertical bars; adult males develop very large jaws and a concave head profile, they are black, with red margins to the dorsal and caudal fins (Ref. 118638). Underwater or in aquaria, males show numerous white spots on the upper half of the flanks, but these fade quickly under stress, so that they appear uniformly black when removed from the water (Ref. 118638).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Found in very shallow waters around Lake Malawi that are densely vegetated, but also in lagoons (Ref. 5595). It can occur at temperatures ranging from 23.0-42.0 °C (Ref. 670). It feeds on detritus and phytoplankton (Ref. 5595). A maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 118638). A large species heavily exploited in Lake Nyasa [= Lake Malawi] and its catchment; males in particular are fast-growing and the species is cultured commercially in Malawi in cages and ponds (Ref. 118638).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

A maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 118638). Builds basin-shaped nests in shallow water from 0.15 m to 1.5 m deep, in sand overlaid with mud, in the vicinity of rooted aquatic vegetation; females brood eggs and young in the mouth until the young reach a length of about 10 mm (Ref. 670).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborateurs

Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Oreochromis. p. 307-346. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5166)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 May 2018

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; Aquarium: Commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Plus d'informations

Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Rassemblement de ponte
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
Souches
Génétique
Fréquences alléliques
Héritabilité
Pathologies
Traitement
Mass conversion
Collaborateurs
Images
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Vitesse
Type de nage
Surface branchiale
Otolithes
Cerveaux
Vision

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.27-0.32).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.