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Sardina pilchardus  (Walbaum, 1792)

European pilchard
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Image of Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)
Sardina pilchardus
Picture by De Sanctis, A.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardina: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin; eau douce; saumâtre; océanodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 10 - 100 m (Ref. 5286), usually 25 - 100 m (Ref. 54866).   Subtropical; 68°N - 14°N, 32°W - 43°E (Ref. 54866)

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Mediterranean (common in the western part and in Adriatic Sea, rare in the eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 14.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 74552); common length : 20.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 188); âge max. reporté: 15 années (Ref. 35388)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 13-21; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 12 - 23. Body sub-cylindrical, belly rather rounded (but more compressed in juveniles). Hind margin of gill opening smoothly rounded (without fleshy outgrowths) ; 3 to 5 distinct body striae radiating downward on lower part of operculum; lower gill rakers not becoming shorter at angle of first gill arch, the upper series not overlapping the lower. Last 2 anal fin rays enlarged.

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Littoral species (Ref. 6808). Form schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846), in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Also utilized dried or salted and smoked; can be pan-fried, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Breeds at 20 to 25 m, near the shore or as much as 100 km out to sea.

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: hautement commercial
FAO(pêcheries: production, Résumé espèce; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 17.3, mean 10.3 (based on 553 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00589 - 0.00776), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.23-0.5; tm=1-2; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.54, 2 SD range = 0.27 - 1.10, log(r) = -0.62, SD log(r) = 0.35, Based on: 3 M, 50 K, 5 tgen, 5 tmax, 11 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Low.