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Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European smelt
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Native range
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Osmerus eperlanus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Osmerus eperlanus
Picture by Meyer, T.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Osmeriformes (Smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts)
Etymology: Osmerus: Greek, osme = odorous; similar to freshly cut cucumbers (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin; eau douce; saumâtre; anadrome (Ref. 51243), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4545).   Temperate; 70°N - 43°N, 9°W - 55°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North Atlantic: White Sea southward to western coasts of France including Baltic Sea, southern North Sea and British Isles (Ref. 4545); the Gironde estuary is the southern limit of his distribution (Ref. 51442). Landlocked populations in lakes of coastal areas of North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea. North to about 68° N in Scandinavia (Ref. 59043). The former nominal subspecies Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus is recorded from the coasts and drainage of White and Barents Seas westward through Baltic Sea to Denmark and it is primarily lacustrine (Ref. 4545). The former subspecies Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi (Rutty 1772) is sympatric with the nominate subspecies in parts of Poland, Denmark and the Baltic, and it is primarily anadromous (Ref. 4545).

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 12.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 4545); common length : 16.5 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 682); poids max. publié: 178.00 g (Ref. 6114); âge max. reporté: 10 années (Ref. 682)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 9-12; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 12 - 16; Vertèbres: 55 - 62. Body long and slim (Ref. 4545). Head rather pointed (Ref. 4545). Snout pointed (Ref. 4545). Upper jaw reaching to hind margin of eye, lower jaw projecting a little (Ref. 4545, Ref. 51442). Teeth in lower jaw larger than those of upper, strong teeth on tongue and canines on vomer (Ref. 4545). Dorsal fin origin behind base of pelvic fins (Ref. 4545). Incomplete lateral line is developed near the head (Ref. 51442). Dorsal side light olive green, flanks silver stripe, belly creamy white (Ref. 4545).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits marine waters, estuaries and large lakes (Ref. 59043). A midwater species, rarely far from shore, primarily anadromous in the west and lacustrine in the east; shoaling at least during spawning season (Ref. 4545). The essential part of its life is spend in the estuarine zone, with just short incursions in the littoral zone (Ref. 51442). The migratory form is grouping together in the estuarine zone for reproduction (Ref. 51442). Enters the rivers for spawning on sandy or gravely bottoms (Ref. 13696). Spawns in tributaries of lakes or along shallow shores of lakes and rivers on sand, gravel, stones and plant material, preferably in fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place between February and May, depending on the water-temperature (Ref. 51442). Produces 8,000-50,000 yellow eggs with a diameter of 0.6-0.9 mm which adhere to the bottom (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Eggs hatch in 3-5 weeks and the larvae descend to the estuarine zone (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Feeds on shrimps and small crustaceans; larger individuals feed on small fish (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). Utilized as foodfish, smoked, as bait and fish oil (Ref. 35388). Smells like cucumber (Ref. 37032, 51442). Locally threatened due to pollution and barriers to migration (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Spawns in lower reaches of streams, deeper parts of lake in sand bottoms (Ref. 682). Spawning takes place with the melting of snow (Ref. 682). Many individuals die after the spawning (Ref. 682). Migratory form generally with rapid growth, more eggs, live longer; individuals feeding on fish grow bigger (Ref. 682). ). Becomes sexually mature in 3-4 years (15-18 cm) in brackish populations, 1-2 years (8-10 cm) in freshwater.

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: commercial
FAO(pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Plus d'informations

Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Rassemblement de ponte
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
Souches
Génétique
Fréquences alléliques
Héritabilité
Pathologies
Traitement
Mass conversion
Collaborateurs
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Vitesse
Type de nage
Surface branchiale
Otolithes
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Sources Internet

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(génôme, nucléotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de données nationales | OsteoBase(skull, spine) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Arbre de Vie | Wikipedia(aller à, chercher) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.5 - 12, mean 9.6 (based on 1010 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00268 - 0.00679), b=3.18 (3.04 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.15-0.25; tm=2-4; tmax=10; Fec=10,000).
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Very high.