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Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792)

European pilchard
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Sardina pilchardus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)
Sardina pilchardus
Picture by De Sanctis, A.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardina: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - 100 m (Ref. 5286), usually 25 - 100 m (Ref. 54866).   亞熱帶的; 68°N - 14°N, 32°W - 43°E (Ref. 54866)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Mediterranean (common in the western part and in Adriatic Sea, rare in the eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.
東北大西洋: 冰島 (稀有的) 與北海,向南至海灣 de Goree ,塞內加爾。 地中海 (常見於部份西部與在亞得里亞海, 稀有的在東部中) ,馬爾馬拉海與黑海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 14.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 74552); common length : 20.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大年龄: 15 年 (Ref. 35388)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 13-21; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 23. Body sub-cylindrical, belly rather rounded (but more compressed in juveniles). Hind margin of gill opening smoothly rounded (without fleshy outgrowths) ; 3 to 5 distinct body striae radiating downward on lower part of operculum; lower gill rakers not becoming shorter at angle of first gill arch, the upper series not overlapping the lower. Last 2 anal fin rays enlarged.
身体接近圆柱形的, 腹面相当圆的.(但是更扁长形的在稚鱼中) 鳃裂的后缘平滑地圆的 ;(没有肉质的自然发展) 3 到 5 明显的身体陷纹放射向下的在鳃盖的较下面的部位上; 下鳃耙不第一个鳃弓变得比较短的在突出部位上, 不部分重叠的上面的系列下面的。 最后 2个臀鳍棘条增大了。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Littoral species (Ref. 6808). Form schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846), in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Also utilized dried or salted and smoked; can be pan-fried, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988).

沿海地区种.(参考文献 6808) 产卵于开放海域中,否则在海岸的附近,产生 50,000-60,000 卵有 1.5 mm 的直径。 (参考文献 35388) 形成鱼群, 通常深度 25 到 55 或甚至 100 公尺白天, 对 10 到 35 公尺升起在晚上。 主要吃浮游性甲壳动物, 也在较大的生物上。 在市场上销售生鲜地了,冻结或装于罐头。 也利用乾燥或盐腌而且烟熏; 可能是油锅炸的, 火烤而且微波。 (参考文献 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Breeds at 20 to 25 m, near the shore or as much as 100 km out to sea. 東北大西洋: 冰島 (稀有的) 與北海,向南至海灣 de Goree ,塞內加爾。 地中海 (常見於部份西部與在亞得里亞海, 稀有的在東部中) ,馬爾馬拉海與黑海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 17.3, mean 10.3 (based on 553 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00589 - 0.00777), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.23-0.5; tm=1-2; tmax=15).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 18 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.