Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Pseudupeneus: Greek, pseudes = false + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 60 m (Ref. 91172). Subtropical
Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Chile; one specimen was caught at the artificially warm outfall at the San Onofre (southern California, USA) nuclear power plant.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Adults inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms near the coast and in deep waters as well (Ref. 9322).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.7 - 28.9, mean 25.8 (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00571 - 0.01268), b=3.17 (3.05 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .