Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 400 m (Ref. 100719). Tropical; 30°N - 7°N
Indian Ocean: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390) including Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) to Maldives, India and Sri Lanka.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 63 - 67 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244)
soft rays: 0. A smoothhound without spots and often with a white-tipped 1st dorsal fin; adults with a hard, bone-like growth embedded in snout, readily felt by pinching it (Ref. 5578). Grey or grey-brown dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Pectoral fins with pale trailing edges (Ref. 5485).
Occurs in continental waters, both inshore and offshore (Ref. 244). Sometimes seen on coral reefs (Ref. 244). Feeds on small bottom fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 244). Caught by shore anglers (Ref. 5578). Readily lives in captivity (Ref. 244). Utilized as a foodfish (Ref. 244).
Viviparous, with 6 to 10 young in a litter; born at 26-28 cm (Ref. 5485). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00120 - 0.00481), b=3.16 (2.99 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.52 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .