Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 220 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 18°S - 37°S, 145°E - 155°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12951); 120.0 cm TL (female)
Found on soft bottoms off beaches, lower parts of estuaries and offshore (Ref. 9909). Feeds on bottom crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes (Ref. 9909). Males mature at 60-68 cm TL, females at 54-66 cm TL; birth size at 13-15 TL. Produces 4-18 pups after 3-5 month gestation, usually around November and December (Ref. 114953). Caught in nets (Ref. 9909). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous with up to 4 in a litter. Size at birth about 13 cm.
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Rhinobatidae. Guitarfishes. p. 1423-1430. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 9909)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.2 - 24.6, mean 24.3 (based on 9 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .