Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 668 m (Ref. 54567). Temperate; 60°N - 25°N, 81°W - 52°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 46.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3787); max. published weight: 22.6 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 30 years (Ref. 796)
Western Atlantic: Quebec in Canada to northeastern Florida in USA, but uncommon in nearshore waters south of North Carolina, USA.
Inhabits continental shelf, occurring deeper in southern parts of range (Ref 7251); tolerating a wide range of temperature (0-21°C) (Ref. 5951).
That testes seem to develop earlier and stay ripe longer suggest multiple spawning by males. Eggs are laid in long, ribbon-shaped veils (Ref. 4842).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00884 - 0.02474), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.1; tmax=30; Fec=300,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .