Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Western Pacific: northwestern Australia and elsewhere in the region but mainly southwest Pacific.
Inhabits shallow inshore waters and offshore soft bottoms (Ref. 9710). Feeds on fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Highly toxic and is responsible for amputation of swimmers toes (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J., 1991. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. III. Gobiidae to Molidae. Research Bulletin No. 41, Research Section, Dept. of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Papua New Guinea. 153 p. (Ref. 6771)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .