Family Hypopomidae - Bluntnose knifefishes
  Order
:
Hypopomidae
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 9 | Species : 46 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : No | Marine : No
  Division
:
Primary freshwater
  Aquarium
:
some
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Species diversity and systematics of the Hypopomidae has been reviewed by Mago-Leccia (1994), Sullivan (1997, 1998), Albert and Campos-da-Paz (1998), and Albert (2001). Hypopomid species possess the following unique combination of characters among gymnotiforms: teeth absent from both jaws; snout moderate to short length (preorbital region less than 38% head length); eye small (diameter less than distance between nares); nasal capsule near eye, anterior nares located outside gape; infraorbital bones ossified as slender tubes; operculum trapezoidal; hyomandibula oriented oblique to long axis of head; anal-fin origin ventral or posterior to pectoral fin-base; no urogenital papilla; no caudal fin or dorsal organ. Hypopomids also possess a multiphasic (usually biphasic) electric organ discharge produced as discrete pulses. There are currently 23 names available in the literature for hypopomid genera and species. Of these, 6 generic and 25 species names are valid. There are in addition 10 manuscript names for species currently in preparation, bringing the known diversity of Hypopomidae to 35 species. Many more hypopomid species are anticipated, as the rate of description is accelerating. Hypopomids are relatively conservative in terms of overall external morphology. Like all gymnotiforms the shape is typically culteriform, with an elongate body and anal fin. Higher level hypopomid taxonomy emphasizes differences in: snout length and body profile, ranging from highly compressed laterally (e.g., Steatogenys) to cylindrical and worm-like (e.g., Microsternarchus). Hypopomids are small to medium sized electric fishes, ranging in total adult body size, from the smallest extant gymnotiform species Hypopygus lepturus (80 mm) to Brachyhypopomus brevirostris (350 mm). The Hypopomidae is confined to the Humid Neotropics, ranging the Rio de la Plata of Argentina (35° S) to the Rio Tuira of Panama (8°N). Hypopomids are known from the continental waters of all South American countries except Chile (Albert, 2001), and are most diverse - both taxonomically and ecologically - in the Amazon basin. The ecology and natural history of most hypopomid species is very poorly understood. Brachyhypopomus is perhaps the most well studied group; it is also the most widely distributed hypopomid genus, in terms of both geography and habitat, extending the full range of the family. Brachyhypopomus species inhabit seasonal streams in the relative to highly desertified areas of northwest Venezuela (Falcón), Gran Sabana (central Guyana), northeast Brazil, southeast Brazil, and northern Argentina (Chaco) (Costa and Campos-da-Paz, 1992). Brachyhypopomus is also highly diverse and abundant in floating meadows of Central Amazonia. Brachyhypopomus is able to tolerate protracted periods of hypoxic water conditions, at least in part because they can hold air bubbles in the gill chamber for use in aerial respiration. Hypopomid systematics and taxonomy is rapidly changing as new species and previously undocumented phenotypes are discovered. The total expected number of species cannot currently be estimated with confidence. A large number of undescribed hypopomid species are known in museum collections and many more are likely to be captured from continued field studies, particularly in Western and Central Amazonia. There is little direct commercial exploitation of hypopomid species. Brachyhypopomus species are ecologically important in floating meadows of white water floodplains, often constituting a significant fraction of the biomass (Crampton, 1996). Steatogenys elegans is an important part of the biomass in the main channels of Amazonian channels. Hypopomid species are not common in the aquarium trade and are not usually eaten. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. 58418.
  Etymology
:
Greek, hypo = under + Greek, pomas, -atos = cover ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Otomorpha | Ostariophysi | | Otophysa | | | | | | Siluriphysae | Gymnotiformes | Sternopygoidei | | Hypopomidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Hypopomidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination
Hypopomus artedi (Kaup, 1856)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
! Hypopomus artedii (Kaup, 1856)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
Hypopomus mulleri (Kaup, 1856)
synonymjuniornew
! Hypopomus muelleri (Kaup, 1856)
synonymjuniornew
Parupygus litaniensis Hoedeman, 1962
synonymjuniororiginal
Parupygus savannensis Hoedeman, 1962
synonymjuniororiginal
Steatogenys elegans (Steindachner, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
Rhamphichthys elegans Steindachner, 1880
synonymseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus elegans (Steindachner, 1880)
synonymseniornew
! Steatogenes elegans (Steindachner, 1880)
synonymseniornew
Rhamphichthys mirabilis Steindachner, 1880
synonymjuniororiginal
Steatogenys duidae (La Monte, 1929)
acceptedseniornew
Tateichthys duidae La Monte, 1929
synonymseniororiginal
Steatogenys ocellatus Crampton, Thorsen & Albert, 2004
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1962
acceptedseniororiginal
Tateichthys duidae (non La Monte, 1929)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Hypopygus neblinae Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus hoedemani de Santana & Crampton, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus isbruckeri de Santana & Crampton, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus minissimus de Santana & Crampton, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus nijsseni de Santana & Crampton, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus ortegai de Santana & Crampton, 2011
acceptedseniororiginal
Hypopygus benoneae Peixoto, Dutra, de Santana & Wosicki, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal
Microsternarchus bilineatus Fernández-Yépez, 1968
acceptedseniororiginal
Microsternarchus brevis Cox Fernandes, Nogueira, Williston & Alves-Gomes, 2015
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus brevirostris (Steindachner, 1868)
acceptedseniornew
Rhamphichthys brevirostris Steindachner, 1868
synonymseniororiginal
Hypopomus brevirostris (Steindachner, 1868)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus beebei (Schultz, 1944)
acceptedseniornew
Hypopomus beebei Schultz, 1944
synonymseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus diazi (Fernández-Yépez, 1972)
acceptedseniornew
Hypopomus diazi Fernández-Yépez, 1972
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus janeiroensis (Costa & Campos-da-Paz, 1992)
acceptedseniornew
Hypopomus janeiroensis Costa & Campos-da-Paz, 1992
synonymseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus jureiae Triques & Khamis, 2003
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus bombilla Loureiro & Silva, 2006
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus draco Giora, Malabarba & Crampton, 2008
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus bullocki Sullivan & Hopkins, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus gauderio Giora & Malabarba, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus bennetti Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus walteri Sullivan, Zuanon & Cox Fernandes, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus alberti Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus arrayae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus batesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus belindae Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus benjamini Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus cunia Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus flavipomus Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus hamiltoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus hendersoni Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus menezesi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus palenque Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus provenzanoi Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus regani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus sullivani Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Brachyhypopomus verdii Crampton, de Santana, Waddell & Lovejoy, 2017
acceptedseniororiginal
Racenisia fimbriipinna Mago-Leccia, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Steatogenys cryptogenes (Triques, 1997)
synonymseniornew
Akawaio penak Maldonado-Ocampo, López-Fernández, Taphorn, Bernard, Crampton & Lovejoy, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal
Procerusternarchus pixuna Cox Fernandes, Nogueira & Alves-Gomes, 2014
acceptedseniororiginal
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