Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 5979), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 34°N - 25°S, 91°W - 5°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5979); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275)
soft rays: 71 - 76. Gray to brown with numerous circles, curved spots, and dots of light blue on head and body; fins with small light blue spots; two or three large diffuse blackish spots on straight portion of lateral line (Ref. 13442).
Western Atlantic: Florida (USA), Bermuda, and the Bahamas to Brazil. Absent in Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island and the Gulf of Guinea (Ref. 5979).
Inhabits clear sandy areas near mangroves, among seagrass, coral or rubble (Ref.9710). Most common flounder around coral reefs (Ref. 26938). Often partially buried in sand, occasionally on hard bottoms (Ref. 9710). Feeds mainly on small fishes but also on crustaceans and octopuses. Marketed fresh (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00530 - 0.02070), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .