Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 20 m (Ref. 48637). Tropical; 30°N - 31°S, 99°E - 175°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Western Pacific: Borneo, Philippines, and northwest Australia to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to New South Wales, Australia and Tonga.
Inhabits muddy substrates, usually shallow coastal slopes to about 20 meters depth and in shallow estuaries (Ref. 48637). Occurs in estuaries, sheltered reef flats, and lagoons to a depth of more than 17 m. Common in seagrass beds and sandy areas; juveniles found among mangroves (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01502 - 0.04398), b=2.85 (2.71 - 2.99), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .