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Lethrinus harak  (Forsskål, 1775)

Thumbprint emperor
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Lethrinus harak   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lethrinus harak (Thumbprint emperor)
Lethrinus harak
Picture by Field, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 32°N - 22°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 2293)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Mouth slightly protractile; lips thick and fleshy. Inner base of pectorals densely covered with scales. Color is olive-green dorsally, paler ventrally; scales on back sometimes with white center. A large elliptical blotch, often broadly edged in yellow, on side directly below lateral line and centered at a vertical near the posterior tip of the pectoral fin. Sometimes light blue dots border the lower rime of the eye and around the nostrils. The pectoral, pelvic, dorsal and anal fins are white to pinkish. The caudal fin is orange or reddish. The vertical fins are sometimes lightly mottled or stripped.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northeastern Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found solitary or in small schools over shallow sandy, coral rubble, mangroves, lagoons, channel and seagrass areas inshore and adjacent to coral reefs. Feeds on polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms and small fish. Reported to spawn throughout the year during the first five days of the lunar month in large aggregations in Palau. Marketed fresh (Ref. 171); flesh spoils rapidly (Ref. 4369).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00783 - 0.01932), b=2.98 (2.85 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.45-0.49; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
very high
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.