Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Microstomus: Greek, mikros = small + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 200 m, usually 10 - 150 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 72°N - 43°N, 26°W - 45°E (Ref. 54592)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 27.0, range 20 - 30 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 6112); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 6112)
Small head and mouth. Body is oval. Skin is marbled and smooth. Lateral line almost straight, slight curve above the pectoral fin (Ref. 35388).
Northeast Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to the White Sea and off Iceland.
Lives most often on stony bottoms. Feeds on a variety of small invertebrates, but polychaetes seem to dominate. Apparently they do not feed in wintertime (Ref. 9900). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Spawning is mainly confined to depths of 55-91 m in the northwestern North Sea and commences at a minimum temperature of 6.5 °C in Scottish waters. Sex ratio is about 1:1, but females progressively predominate upon sexual maturity.
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00482 - 0.01372), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.33 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.08-0.42; tm=3-6; tmax=23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .