Family Sphyraenidae - Barracudas
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 1 | Species : 27 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
lower   Tertiary   lower   Eocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Tropical and subtropical. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Elongated body. Large-mouthed with the lower jaw projecting forward bearing strong fanglike teeth. Upper jaw non-protractile, an adaptation to feeding on large prey. Well-developed lateral line. Gill rakers vestigial. Position of pectoral fins relatively low. Dorsal fins far apart. First dorsal fin with 5 spines; second dorsal with 1 spine and 9 soft rays. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Usually to 1.8 m maximum length; could grow longer. Voracious predators of other fishes. Attacks on humans have been reported. Pelagic spawning in schools. Food and game fishes, but large specimens may be ciguatoxic.
  Etymology
:
Greek, sphyraina = a fish similar to an iron pin, a pike like fish, 1849 ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
active
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Euacanthomorphacea | Percomorphaceae | Carangimorpharia | Incertae sedis in Carangimorpharia | Sphyraenidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Sphyraenidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Esox sphyraena Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal2
Esox spet Haüy, 1787
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Sphyraena spet (Lacepède, 1803)
synonymjuniornew
Sphyraena vulgaris Cuvier, 1829
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena bocagei Osório, 1891
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Sphyraena guachancho (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771)
acceptedseniornew
Esox barracuda Edwards, 1771
synonymseniororiginal2
Esox barracuda Walbaum, 1792
ambiguoushomonymoriginal2
ambiguoushomonymnew
Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1792)
ambiguoushomonymnew
! Sphyraena baracuda (Walbaum, 1792)
ambiguoushomonymnew
! Syphyraena barracuda (Walbaum, 1792)
ambiguoushomonymnew
Sphyraena sphyraena picuda Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymjuniororiginal1
Sphyraena picuda Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymjuniorchange in rank
Sphyraena becuna Lacepède, 1803
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena dussumieri Valenciennes, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena japonica Bloch & Schneider, 1801
acceptedseniororiginal1
Sphyraena japonica Cuvier, 1829
ambiguoushomonymoriginal2
Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier, 1829
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena forsteni Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena toxeuma Fowler, 1904
synonymjuniororiginal2
Callosphyraena toxeuma (Fowler, 1904)
synonymjuniornew
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena guachanche Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena guaguancho Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena dubia Bleeker, 1863
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena jello Cuvier, 1829
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena jelio Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena permisca Smith, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena japonica (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena qenie (non Klunzinger, 1870)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier, 1829
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena obtusa Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena chinensis Lacepède, 1803
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Sphyraena brachygnathus Bleeker, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal
Sphyraena pinguis (non Günther, 1874)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena chrysotaenia (non Klunzinger, 1884)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraenella chrysotaenia (non Klunzinger, 1884)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena viridiscens Cuvier, 1829
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena viridensis mediterranea Relini & Orsi Relini, 1997
synonymotheroriginal1
Sphyraena vulgaris (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraenella flavicauda (Rüppell, 1838)
synonymseniornew
Sphyraena langsar Bleeker, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena forsteri (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena obtusata (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena chrysotaenia (non Klunzinger, 1884)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena borealis DeKay, 1842
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena afra Peters, 1844
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena hupferi Fischer, 1885
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena piscatorum Cadenat, 1964
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena guachancho (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena jello (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena dubia (non Bleeker, 1863)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena argentea Girard, 1854
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymseniornew
! Sphyraena novaehollandia Günther, 1860
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena novaehollandie Günther, 1860
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena uoraebolandiae Günther, 1860
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraema picudilla Poey, 1860
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger, 1870
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena genie Klunzinger, 1870
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena nigripinnis Temminck & Schlegel, 1843
ambiguousquestionableoriginal2
Sphyraena tessera Smith, 1956
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena putnamiae (non Jordan & Seale, 1905)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena pinguis Günther, 1874
acceptedseniororiginal2
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena africana Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909
synonymjuniororiginal2
Indosphyraena africana (Gilchrist & Thompson, 1909)
synonymjuniornew
Sphyraena natalensis von Bonde, 1923
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena japonica (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena helleri (non Jenkins, 1901)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena ensis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena chrysotaenia Klunzinger, 1884
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraenella chrysotaenia (Klunzinger, 1884)
synonymseniornew
Sphyraena obtusata (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena helleri Jenkins, 1901
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena novaehollandiae (non Günther, 1860)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena idiastes Heller & Snodgrass, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena tome Fowler, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale, 1905
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena putnamiae Jordan & Seale, 1905
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena putnamie Jordan & Seale, 1905
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena raghava Chaudhuri, 1917
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena bleekeri Williams, 1959
synonymjuniororiginal2
Sphyraena jello (non Cuvier, 1829)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena qenie (non Klunzinger, 1870)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Sphyraena waitii Ogilby, 1908
acceptedseniororiginal2
! Sphyraena waitei Ogilby, 1908
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena waiteii Ogilby, 1908
synonymseniororiginal
! Sphyraena waittei Ogilby, 1908
synonymseniororiginal
Sphyraena iburiensis Doiuchi & Nakabo, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal2
Sphyraena intermedia Pastore, 2009
acceptedseniororiginal2
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