Classification / Names
Common names from other countries
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4787)
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 34 - ? cm
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 90102), usually 3 - 60 m (Ref. 5222)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 36°N - 36°S, 27°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to South Africa and east to the Gilbert Islands. Probably found in all tropical islands of the Indian Ocean. Recorded from Europa Island (MNHN 1992-0475, Ref. 33390).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
soft rays: 8 - 9. Dark brown to black in color, occasionally with an orange cast (Ref 5222); color in market is dark brown without distinguishing marks (Ref. 89707); Inside of this grouper's mouth ranges from light pink to crimson. Juveniles have a white border on the caudal fin (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having relatively deep body; greatest depth 2.1-2.4 in SL; width 2.3-2.8 times in depth (Ref. 89707); truncate caudal fin; longest pectoral rays fifth or sixth (Ref. 90102); head length 2.5-2.7 times in SL; convex interorbital area; dorsal head profile steep, straight or slightly concave along the snout and distinctly convex from eye to dorsal fin; preorbital depth 6.5-9.2 times in HL; finely serrate preopercle, fleshy lower edge; smooth subopercle and interopercle or with minute serrae; opercle with three flat spines, middle one closer to the lower spine; upper edge of operculum convex; posterior nostril round or oval; maxilla reaches past eye; ventro-posterior corner of maxilla with distinct bony protuberance; slender supramaxilla; small canine at front of jaws, none elsewhere; 2-4 rows of small slender teeth at side of lower jaw; presence of palatine teeth; well-developed scaly flap of skin joining upper pectoral-fin rays to body; pectoral fins asymmetrical; pelvic fins subequal to pectoral fins, reaching to or beyond anus; caudal fin with 8 branched rays and 9 procurrent rays in upper part and 7 branched rays and 8 procurrent rays in lower part; body scales ctenoid, with auxiliary scales (Ref. 89707).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index
PD50 = 1.0000 many relatives (e.g. carps) 0.5 - 2.0 few relatives (e.g. lungfishes)
4.2 ±0.71 se; Based on food items.
Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.)
Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100)